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21.07.2015

O zdravju starejših prekarnih delavcev

Tole bo v kratkem krenilo v objavo.

Health of elderly precarious workers: econometric evidence from SHARE

Andrej Srakar
Institute for Economic Research, Ljubljana and Faculty of Economics, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, andrej.srakar@ier.si

Abstract

In the article we present the results of SHARE wave 4 dataset’ based analysis about the elderly precarious workers and their health situation. Although the topic of precarious work (not the least among the elderly people) is becoming ever more important in Europe, there has been very little empirical and econometric evidence on the issue. We try to remedy for this void by presenting a detailed econometric analysis to study the main question: »Are elderly precarious workers really discriminated in terms of worse health as compared to the elderly employed people?« We firstly present some basic descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis results and tests, followed by econometric results using finite mixture models to appropriately model the heterogeneity among precarious workers. Our results show that, contrary to the expectations, the health of elderly self-employed workers is generally in no way inferior to the health of elderly employees. Problems in health of the precarious workers emerge only when the analysis changes focus to those who are neither employed nor self-employed, while engaged in paid work (»real« precarious people). There are visible differences in the health status of employees and »real« precarious workers in almost all the indicators and in the vast majority of the 16 countries included. Nevertheless, our analysis points to a large heterogeneity among precarious workers which fall into two broad groups which we label »precarious workers for money reasons« and »precarious workers because of »active ageing« reasons«, with clearly visible differences among the two groups in income and health. We also study the effects of social exclusion on health status of precarious workers controlling for apparent endogeneity in the model. We conclude by policy implications of the analysis and paths for future research.

Keywords: precarious workers, older people, self-employed, health indicators, finite mixture models, endogeneity

JEL: I10, I18, I14, C36, C46

Spodnja slika pove več kot besede. Kar smo oz. sem odkril je to, da nekoliko čudne rezultate, ki jih dobite, ko vzamete starejše (od 50 let) prekarne delavce v splošnem in primerjate njihovo zdravstveno stanje s stanjem starejših zaposlenih, razloži heterogenost v populaciji. Na eni strani imate revne, zdravstveno prikrajšane starejše “prekarce”, ki sem ji sam v analizi dal ime »precarious workers for money reasons«; na drugi strani pa dohodkovno ne posebej zamejene in tudi zdravstveno čisto nič prikrajšane “prekarce”, ki jih imenujem »precarious workers because of »active ageing« reasons«. Na spodnji sliki sta prikazani obe distribuciji, uporabili smo modele “končnega mešanja” (angl. finite mixture), na x osi je število kroničnih bolezni. Jasno je vidna prva skupina v modrem in druga v rdečem. Zanimivo je še to, da je druga skupina bistveno bolj skoncentrirana in ne kaže kakšnih koli posebnih težav z zdravjem, pri prvi je slika precej drugačna.

Članek je bil v prvi obliki predstavljen pred nekaj tedni tukajle.

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17.06.2014

Public Budgets for Culture in the EU During Financial Crisis: An Econometric Perspective

Tale članek bo drug teden predstavljen v Montrealu na osrednji konferenci združenja kulturnih ekonomistov ACEI.

Tole je angleški povzetek. Ko bo kaj več časa, morda napišem še kaj več na to temo.

The article analyses whether EU countries use similar cultural financing strategies during crisis as they use in economically successful years. To provide an answer to the question we evaluate the following main hypothesis: “Effects of the financial crisis were reflected in the cuts in general, central and local budgets for culture.” To estimate it we use methods from multivariate analysis (hierarchical and K-means clustering, principal components analysis), and panel data regression analysis (static and dynamic models). Due to the endogenous (reverse-causal) nature of relationship between central and local budgets in culture that has so far not been modelled, explained and econometrically tested, we also use panel VAR methodology to resolve and estimate the consequences of this relationship. We use dataset from Eurostat according to COFOG methodology. It has to be noted that this is one of the first (or perhaps the first) econometric analyses of public budgets for culture and their determinants in the EU and in general.

We are able to establish three main findings: 1) during the period 2008-2011 in 13 studied European countries cuts in cultural budgets as measured from deviations to the trend were present on both central as well as local level (somewhat contrary to what was established by previous study of Čopič et al., 2013); 2) the patterns of cuts in the cultural budgets have not always followed cultural policy characteristics of the studied countries; 3) there indeed exists a reverse-causal relationship among central and local cultural budgets – raising the central cultural budget will also raise the local cultural budgets, while, on the other hand, raising of the local cultural budgets will have minor if not negative effects on the level of central cultural budget. This has important policy consequences and has to be verified and tested in future empirical studies.

P.S.: Powerpoint predstavitev z nekaj najnovejšimi korekcijami in dopolnili najdete tukaj.

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